The Roman forum of Nora

Proxy model of the reconstruction

Online sharing

The archaeological site of Nora is located on the promontory of Capo di Pula, on the south coast of Sardinia, about 30 km south-west of Cagliari. 

The forum occupies a level zone in the eastern sector of the Roman city and, at the moment, represents the largest open area discovered within the urban texture.

The whole complex consists of a rectangular square (about 34 x 44 m) and several buildings built along three of the four sides of the square (a temple, on the northern side; a basilica, on the eastern side; and a Curia, on the western side).

The area was discovered during the second half of the 20th century, by Gennaro Pesce, and then intensively excavated from 1997 to 2006 by the University of Padova.

The Extended Matrix method was used to map, validate and represent the extensive and analytical process of reconstruction of two chronological phases of the complex (construction, 40-20 B.C.; renovation, 3rd century A.D.).

A 3D reconstruction of all the buildings facing the square, including their interior, was realized. The entire 3D model was also superimposed on the 3D survey of the whole area with intent to visualize a transition between epochs (contemporary, construction and renovation).  

The aim of the reconstruction was to create a 3D scene easy to understand and explore both for experts and non-experts. The forum of Nora was also represented online with both EMviq and Hathor, the 3D web-apps included in the Extended Matrix Framework (EMF)


Berto S., Demetrescu E., Fanini B., Bonetto J., Salemi G. 2021. Analysis and Validation of the 3D Reconstructive Process through the Extended Matrix Framework of the Temple of the Roman Forum of Nora (Sardinia, CA), in Environmental Sciences Proceedings 10, no. 1: 18. DOI:

Bonetto J., Falezza G., Ghiotto A.R., Novello M. 2009, Nora. Il foro romano. Storia di un'area urbana dall'età fenicia alla tarda antichità (1997-2006), I-IV, eds. J. Bonetto, G. Falezza, A.R. Ghiotto, M. Novello, Scavi di Nora, 1, Padova.